1918-1932 Avant-garde De Stijl and functionalism

1918 DeStijl- Gerri Rieveld Chaise rouge bleu

 

Style (pronounce [də.’stɛil], in Dutch « le style ») was first a review of’arts et d’architecture, published 1917 to 1928, under the leadership of Theo van Doesburg and with the active participation of Piet Mondrian. Par extension, Style refers to an artistic movement, derived from néo-plasticisme and has profoundly influenced the architecture of xxand century (especiallyBauhaus and, consequently, the style international).

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In the words of Marek Wieczorek1 "Most of its members envision a utopian environment through abstract art, universal harmony in the full integration of all the arts ". The ambition of Style was to give new meaning to the arts by bringing, by integrating around the desire to destroy the “baroque” (according to the meaning that Van Doesburg[cf. citations] and his friends gave this word), and by the use of colors and "pure" shapes, in dynamic equilibrium and expansion as, light, and even, visually, weightless ! Mathematics, the perfection of the machine, community life and the anonymity of working methods at that time were stimulated in their research.

765px-Destijl_anthologiebonset DeStijlThree

Besides Van Doesburg and Mondrian this movement’avant-garde transdisciplinary included among its members the most famous architects Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, J. Wils and Robert Van't Hoff, Cornelis Van Eesteren, designer furniture Gerrit Rietveld, the poet A. Why, painters and sculptors Bart van der Leck, Georges Vantongerloo, Vilmos Huszar, César Domela, Vordemberge-Gildewart, artist-architect El Lissitzky and the painter and filmmaker Hans Richter. With, promptly, participation Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Jean Arp.

The purpose of Style, in 1932, was precipitated by differences increasingly prominent among its founding members, Van Doesburg Mondrian criticizing its lack of freedom and imagination in the creation, and also by the death of Doesburg in 1931.

 

Van Doesburg van-doesburg----006

Van Doesburg

BeatTheWhites El Lissitzky el-lissitzky-broom

El Lissitzky

Hans Richter, Filmstudie, 1926 (still)_1 Hans+Richter1

Hans Richter

Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud d Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud oud-jacobus-johannes-pieter-j-chair

Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud

 

Néoplasticisme

The term néoplasticisme was employed by the Dutch painters Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg to describe their art, abstract, austere and geometric.

Composition of a picture

These two painters imply that their tables are made of purely formal elements, or plastic, colors such as, forms, lines and planes. Any reference to the material world is banished from their webs, as in Composition with gray, red, yellow, and blue Mondrian andComposition Van Doesburg, painted both shortly after the end of the World War I. These works are examples of the creation of the Dutch movement Style (Le style), informal group of artists founded in 1917 and directed by Van Doesburg and Mondrian. Stripped of these tables visual language has made icons of the modern era.

“Composition with, red, black, blue and yellow “ Mondrian [change]

This Mondrian painting appears as a relatively simple configuration elements. Black lines across the table horizontally and vertically, precisely parallel to the edges of the canvas. They form an irregular grid with areas of flat color and rectangular: black, many shades of gray, red and yellow mixed with gray. The provision asymmetrical, but how these blocks of color are associated in any table maintains a sense of balance or visual unity. Mondrian himself said these tables: “You must first try to see composition, color and line and not representation as representation.” Mondrian then develops a talented art form of its own reality, distinct from the rest of the existence. The néoplasticistes reduced the drawing to its most basic form and is employed as the three Primary colors: blue, red and yellow.

Art harmonieux

Mondrian said repeatedly that he wanted a balanced and harmonious art. This is not just a pictorial concern, considered as the balance in his works as equivalent of a cosmic harmony. Mondrian was influenced by the Russian painter Kandinsky,and the mathematician Matthew Dutch Schoenmaekers that 1915 wrote: “The two basic absolute opposites that shape our earth are: to the horizontal line, that is to say, the path of the earth around the sun, and the vertical movement, deep space rays originating from the center of the sun.”

The geometric structure of Mondrian's painting is very different from the subjective world and gestural art of Kandinsky before the war. If neoplastic art was an art idealistic never visa to be “timeless”, forms utopian in are no less the product of a particular era. The order and stability were of great importance after trauma the First World War, Mondrian and Van Doesburg and art had a fundamental role to play in rebuilding civilization western. The works of these two artists can therefore be considered as examples, paving the way morally and aesthetically while Europe was entering a new phase in its history.

In 1942, Mondrian vivait à New-York. Having spent several years exploring the different combinations of his pictorial basic – primary colors, black and white grid -, he changed direction radically. As his work “Broadway Boogie-Woogie”. The title suggests that it was directly inspired by the city, and by the rate of Jazz. His visual language and its openness to material references reveal an artist who turns his back to the restrictions that he had deliberately imposed with Neoplasticism.

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